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高考英語閱讀理解考點聚焦及例題講解

編輯: 路逍遙 關鍵詞: 英語學習方法 來源: 逍遙右腦記憶


一、考點聚焦
1、題型特點
閱讀是理解和吸收書面信息的能力。《中學英語教學大綱》規定,中學生應側重培養閱讀理解能力。
閱讀材料的選取原則為:
(1)閱讀量不少于1000個單詞。近三年超過2000字篇數為5篇,讀速要求為44.2,44.6和46.3wpm。
(2)題材多樣化,包括科普、社會、文化、政治、史地、經濟、新聞報道乃至廣告說明。
(3)體裁避免單一化,包括記敘文、說明文、應用文等。
2、試題要求
(1)掌握所讀材料的主旨和大意,以及用以說明主旨和大意的事實和細節。
(2)既理解具體的事實,也理解抽象的概念。
(3)既理解字面意思,也理解深層含義,包括作者的態度、意圖等。
(4)既理解某句、某段的意義也理解全篇的邏輯關系,并據此進行推理和判斷。
(5)能根據材料所提供的信息,結合中學生應有的常識正確判斷生詞的含義。
3、基本能力
(1)能迅速看準每句的結構,抓住主句的主語、謂語、賓語。
(2)有一定的詞匯量和辨詞能力。
(3)能靈活運用所學語法知識,根據句中的某個詞迅速斷定真假、語態和時態等。
(4)對英美文化背景知識有一定了解。
(5)有良好的思維能力,能邊看邊加工所得到的信息,從而作出正確分析、判斷和綜合。
(6)有平時大量閱讀作基礎,有一定的語感和相當的閱讀速度。

二、應試技巧點撥
1、四個步驟
(1)速讀短文,了解短文的主旨大意,辨別文體,掌握結構。
(2)看題。了解考查內容,帶著問題讀材料,尋找答案。
(3)復讀。對所選答案有針對性地尋找支撐論點的關鍵信息。
(4)核查。注意各題的答案應邏輯一致,不能自相矛盾。盡可能找到(從文中)根據,確保正確無誤。
2、四個善于
(1)關于審題,找出文中依據。
(2)善于尋找線索。
(3)善于抓主題句,解決概括題。
(4)善于篩選、比較、衡量、綜合文章的有用信息。
3、三個避免
(1)只見樹木不見林。
(2)難題耗時太多。
(3)閱讀方式不當。

三、精典范例
例1 (NMET 2001)
Shanghai: Car rentals(出租)are becoming more and more popular as an inexpensive way of taking to the roads. Business people, foreigners and families alike are making good use of the growing industry.

The first car rental firm opened in Shanghai in 1992 and now 12 car rental players are in the game, with more than 11,500 cars in their books.

The largest player—Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices—deluxe sedans, minivans, station wagons, coaches. Santana sedans are big favorite.

Firms can attract enough customers for 70 percent of their cars every month. This figure shoots up during holiday seasons like National Day, Labor Day and New Year's Day, with some recording 100 percent rental.

The major market force rests in the growing population of white-collar employees(白領雇員),who can afford the new service, said Zhuang Yu, marketing manager of Shanghai Angel car Rental Co.
( )1. The words "deluxe sedans","minivans"and "station wagons"used in the text refer to ___________.
A.cars in the making B.car rental firms
C.cars for rent D.car makers
( )2. Which of the following statements is true according to the text?
A. 70% of the cars can be rented out on holiday.
B. 70% of the customers are while-collar employees.
C. More firms are open for service during holiday seasons.
D. Some firms rent out all their cars during holiday seasons.
( )3. Shanghai's car rental industry is growing so fast mainly due to ___________.
A. better cars supplied by producers.
B. fast service offered by car rental firms.
C. the increasing number of white-collar emplioyees.
D. people's growing interest in travelling during holidays.
解析:
1.C。上文提到:"Shanghai Bashi旅游車租賃中心"提供了廣泛豐富的選擇,可判斷選擇的內容為可供租賃的車型。故選C。
2.D。文中提到的數據70%為"每月汽車租出量",故A、B都不正確。"This figure shoots up during holiday seasons …, with some recording 100 percent rental"判斷出D項陳述正確的,即"一些公司在節假日里能夠把汽車全部租出去。"
3.C。文章最后一段引用"汽車租賃中心市場經理"(Zhuang Yu)的話解釋了上海汽車租賃行車迅猛發展的原因根源于"the growing population of white-collar employees"。故選C。

例2:(2004年全國卷II)
Rome had the Forum. London has Speaker's Corner. Now always–on– the-go New Yorkers have Liz and Bill.

Liz and Bill, two college graduates in their early 20s, have spent a whole year trying to have thousands of people talk to them in subway stations and on busy street corners. Just talk.

Using a 2-foot-tall sign that says,"Talk to Me."they attract conversatio- nalists, who one evening included a mental patient, and men in business suits.

They don't collect money. They don't push religion(宗教). So what's the point?

"To see what happens, said Liz."We simply enjoy life with open communication(交流)."
Shortly after the September 11,2001 attacks, they decided to walk from New York City to Washington, a 270-mile trip. They found they loved talking to people along the way and wanted to continue talking with strangers after their return.

"It started as a crazy idea,"Liz said."We were so curious about all the strangers walking by with their life stories. People will talk to us about anything: their jobs, their clothes, their childhood experiences, anything."

Denise wanted to talk about an exam she was about to take. She had stopped by for the second time in two days, to let the two listeners know how it went.

Marcia had lost her husband to a serious disease."That was very heavy on my mind,"Marcia said."To be able to talk about it to total strangers was very good,"she explained.

To celebrate a year of talking, the two held a get-together in a city park for all the people they had met over the past year. A few hundred people showed up, as well as some television cameramen and reporters.

They may plan more parties or try to attract more people to join their informal talks. Some publishers have expressed interest in a book, something they say they'll consider.
1. What did Liz and Bill start doing after September 2001?
A. Chatting with people. B. Setting up street signs
C. Telling stories to strangers D. Organizing a speaker's corner
2. What they have been doing can be described as .
A. pointless B. normal C. crazy D. successful
3. Why are Denise and Marcia mentioned in the text?
A. They knew Liz and Bill very well.
B. They happened to meet the writer of the text.
C. They organized the get-together in the city park.
D. They are examples of those who talked to Liz and Bill.
4. What will Liz and Bill do in the future?
A. Go in for publishing. B. Do more television programs.
C. Continue what they are doing. D. Spend more time reading books.
5. How do they like they idea of writing a book?
A. They have decided to wait a year or two
B. They will think about it carefully
C. They agreed immediately
D. They find it hard to do that
解析:
1.A。本篇講述了兩個大學畢業生與陌生人交談,傾聽人們向他們傾述的互惠的活動。文章從聯想開始,簡介Liz and Bill(這是兩個人的名字,又是交談與傾聽活動的名稱)做什么,怎樣開始的,效果如何,未來打算等,其中等六段和第七段是插敘(從shortly after…到…experiences, anything.),講述的就是兩個年輕人怎樣開始這一活動的。故選A項;開始與人聊天。
2.D。Liz and Bill活動很成功。從倒數第二段可知:為慶祝該活動一周所舉辦的聚會,有許多人參加,記者和攝影師都來了,說明很成功。
3.D。Liz和Bill同許多人談生活,傾聽過許多人跟他們談心,Denise和Marcia是其中的兩人。提到他們來做例子。
4.C。最后一段的前一句說明他們還想吸引更多的人來加入這一活動,與他們聊天。故選C。
5.B。本題問Liz和Bill怎么看待寫本書這回事,全篇最后一句可知,但本句結構較復雜。something是代詞,是a book的同位語,"they'll consider"是定語從句,"they say"起到插入語的作用。全句可譯為:有些出版商表達了給Liz和Bill 出本書的興趣,Liz和Bill說他們會考慮這件事。consider一詞可解釋為think about carefully,"something"指出書寫書。故選B。

例3:
My first reaction was annoyance. It was Friday afternoon, and I was within an hour of finishing my work for the week. As I was leaving, a nurse brought me one more patient message. The statement read: "Mrs.Jones called to say that she has had blurred vision(視覺模糊)ever since her medical test this morning."I smiled. Suddenly our tests were causing eye problems.

This week my patients had questioned everything. My patient with high blood pressure had stopped coming to her treatment on the advice of an Internet chat room. A woman who had a mental problem was substituting(用……代替)St . John's word for her medication. Now Mrs. Jones was imagining problems. I rolled my eyes.

My second reaction was worry. As I looked through her record, I tried to figure out why she would have blurred vision, but nothing in her record explained the new problem. She's probably just anxious, I thought. Still, she wouldn't have called if she had been all right. I picked up the phone.

What I next felt can only be described as delight. Before I made the call, the nurse ran in: Mrs. Jones called. Her vision is fine. Turns out she picked up the wrong glasses when she left the office. The X-raytechnician has been having the same problem. I let out a laugh. Mrs. Jones had been right. Her vision had been blurred. Now we know why.

Finally I felt shame. I came to realize what Mrs. Jones had taught me. I had first known she was wrong, that her anxiety had clouded her judgment. Instead, my medical training had clouded mine. Now I me for my help. They pay me to listen, diagnose(診斷),treat and talk. That suggests trust; I must remember that, and trust them too.

1.The writer smiled while reading the patient message because he knew .
A. Mrs. Jones would ask for more tests
B. the patient was being unreasonable
C. the nurse was joking with him
D. Mrs. Jones would call him
2. What had caused Mrs . Jones' eye problem?
A. Wrong glasses B. Medical checkup.
C. Her own imagination D. Chatting on the Internet
3.The underlined words"clouded her judgment"in the last paragraph probably mean .
A. made her less trustful toward the doctor
B. put her in control of her own feelings
C. made her less able to think clearly
D. put her in a dangerous situation
解析:
1.B。本篇講一個醫生要結束一周的工作時幾分鐘內的心理歷程。一周來,病人們不斷懷疑或不信任自己,其中一個病人Mrs.Jones也來電話說上午看完病后眼睛看不清東西,醫生先是煩躁,進而擔心焦慮是否真的有問題或病人只是在想像,再而是高興——Mrs.Jones只是戴錯了眼鏡,自己的診斷治療沒問題。最后是慚愧,病人還是信任自己的,自己也必須信任病人。文章第二段活用了許多過去完成時,說明這些事先發生,許多病人開始沒道理地懷疑自己,現在又輪到Mrs.Jones。所以醫生知道這位病人有些沒理性。
2.A。第四段的前幾句說明了Mrs.Jones視力正常,(下班)離開辦公室時拿錯了眼鏡。
3.C。畫線部分中cloud作動詞用,是用云擋住的意思,整體畫線部分應是"影響了她的判斷力,使她不能正常思考",本題可用代入法解決。

例4:
It's not the flashiest car in the world. Not even close. But the 1971 Volkswagen named Helios can do something most cars can't : run on solar energy—energy from the sun's light and head!
Joshua Bechtold, 14,and the other students at the Riverside School in Lyndonville, Vermont, worked They named their car after Helios, the sun god in Greek mythology(神話)。
The 4-year-old Tour de Sol encourages the use of "green",or environmen- tally friendly, cars to help reduce pollution and save enengy. It's not a race. Cars are judged on fuel efficiency(耗油量)rather than speed. In the week-long event, 44 cars took the 350-mile tour from Waterbury, Connecticut, to Lake George, New York. Of the 23 student cars, Helios was the only one built by middle school students.

A teacher drove Helios, but the children talked with people wherever they stopped along the road."That was my favorite part,"says Anna Browne,15."We explained how the car runs."

Due in part to old, inefficient batteries(電池),Helios finished fourth—out of four—in its kind, the sun-powered class."We were there for the fun of it,"Anna says,"We're proud of Helios,"says Ariel Gleicher, 14."It's a car that's good for the environment."

1. What is special about the car Helios in the text?
A. It was built by middle school students
B. It has an attractive design
C. It was made in 1971
D. It won the fourth prize
2. How many sun-powered cars took part in the race?
A. 1 B. 4 C. 23 D. 44
3. What would be the best title for the text?
A. The Making of Helios
B. 1999 American Tour de Sol
C. Sun-powered Gars on the Road
D. Use of Green Cars in Connecticut
4. The students felt proud of Helios because .
A. it could run as far as 350 miles
B. it was favored by many children
C. it had high-quality batteries
D. it was driven by clean energy
解析:
1.A。從第一段"run on solar energy"和第二段"Joshua Bechtold,14, and the other students…worked many months to get Helois ready."可知本車利用太陽能,并且由學生制做。
2.B。從最后一段"Helois finished fourth-out of four-in its kind, the sun-powered class"可知,四輛同類車參賽,Helois得第四名。
3.C。全文講述Helois這類太陽能車。本文不止講Helois的制作,排除A。本文講Helois參賽前后的事,不以賽事為主,排除B。環保汽車的使用不止在Connectinut, 排除D。
4.D。學生們對此車感到自豪是因為該車環保,而非車速或小孩子喜歡,且它的電池舊而效率低,排除其他各項。

例5:
The other day, my friend Jane was invited to a 40th birthday party. The time printed on the invitation was 7:30 pm. Jane went off with her husband, expecting a merry evening of wine, food, and song.

By 9:45,everybody was having great fun, but no food had appeared. Jane and David were restless. Other guests began whispering that they, too, were starving. But no one wanted to leave, just in case some food was about to appear. By 11:00, there was still no food, and everyone was completely off their heads. Jane and David left hungry and angry.

Their experience suggests that the words on the printed invitations need to be made clearer. Everyone reads and understands the invitations differently. Most of us would agree that 6:30—8:30pm means drinks only, go out to dinner afterwards; 8:00pm or 8:30pm means possible dinner, but 9:30pm and any time thereafter means no food, eat beforehand, roll up late.

But this is not always the case. If asked to a students' party at 6:30pm, it is normal for guests not to appear before midnight, if at all, and no one cares. Being the first to arrive—looking eager—is social death. When my mother asked to a party for 6:30, she likes to be there, if not on time, then no later than seven. My age group (late thirties)falls somewhere between the two, but because we still think we're young. We're probably closer to student-time than grown-up time.

The accepted custom at present is confusing(混亂的),sometimes annoying, and it often means you may go home hungry, but it does lend every part that precious element(成分)of surprise.
1. The underlined words"off their heads"probably mean .
A. tired B. crazy C. curious D. hopeless
2. Jane and David's story is used to show that .
A. party-goers usually get hungry at parties
B. party invitations can be confusing
C. people should ask for food at parties
D. birthday parties for middle-aged people are dull
3. For some young people, arriving on time for a students' party will probably be considered .
A. very difficult B. particularly thoughtful
C. friendly and polite D. socially unacceptable
4. According to the writer, people in their late thirties .
A. are likely to arrive late for a party
B. care little about the party time
C. haven't really grown up yet
D. like surprises at parties
5. What is the general idea of the text? .
A. It's safe to arrive late just when food is served
B. It's wise to eat something before going to a party
C. It's important to follow social rules of party-going
D. It's necessary to read invitations carefully
解析:
1.B。參加晚會的人沒吃晚飯,到晚11點,人們餓瘋了。
2.B。開頭的故事做為例子,說明邀請信函令人迷茫,人們無法把握該如何去做。
3.D。第四段前幾句說明,年輕的學生赴晚會遲到很正常。急切地第一個趕到的人太少見了。
4.A。第四段最后提及三十多歲的人參加晚會的時間接近學生的時間,故可能遲到。
5.C。全文可知,不同年齡段的人到達晚會的時間不同,對晚會時間理解不同,不遵從社會習慣,便會出現餓肚子等現象。所以,按社會習俗參加晚會極為重要。

例6:
Cannes will rock to the sound of a cancan dance this year when Moulin Rouge by the Australian director Baz Luhrmann opens the French film festival

(電影節)in May. The musical stars Nicole Kidman as a singer, and John Leguizamo as the artist Henri de Toulouse-Lautree. It will be competing for the palme d'Or, the festival's top prize. The festival runs to May 21.

The American actor Tommy Lee Jones, 54, has married his longtime girlfriend, Dawn Maria Laurel, 36, in a private wedding in San Antonio."It wasn't a big to-do,"said Fred Biery, a U.S. District Judge who performed the service. He refused to discuss things further."These are very private people,"he said.
Loretta Lynn is being treated for a very bad cold in Tennessee and will miss several appearances. The country singer, 65, was admitted to a hospital near her home in Hurricane Mills."She is in good condition, but the doctors are watching her closely,"a spokeswoman said.

The French-Algerian singer Enrico Macias was named a United Nations peace messenger. Enrico joins eight other people who act as goodwill envoys(使者)for the United Nations, among them are the writer Elie Wiesel and the basketball player Magie Johnson.
1. We can learn from the text that Henri de Toulouse-Lantree is .
A. a figure in a film B. a dancer in a show
C. a country singer D. a prize winner
2. We know from the text that .
A. Moulin Rouge won the top prize in a film festival
B. Loretta Lynn is under the doctor's care
C. eight people serve as the UN goodwill enjoys
D. Fred Biery was Tommy Lee Jones' assistant
3. This text most probably appears in .
A. a book on film stars B. a film review in a magazine
C. a newspaper D. a notice
解析:
1.A。第一段"…and John Leguizamo as the artist Hentti de You-louse- Lautree."可知,as前省略了will act, as前的人是一個演員,其后的人是電影中的角色。
2.B。第四段"She (Loretta Lynn)is in good condition, but the doctors are watching her closely"可知答案。Moulin Rough(一部影片)即將參加電影節,尚未獲獎,排除A。Enrico Macias同其他八人一道,共九人,排除C。Fred Biery是一個法官,故排除D。
3.C。全文四小段文章均是關于影視娛樂圈的事,應該是從報紙的休閑娛樂欄目中選取的文章。
 


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